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When violence and trauma visit American places, a complex question follows: Demolish, or press on?

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When violence and trauma visit American places, a complex question follows: Demolish, or press on?
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When violence and trauma visit American places, a complex question follows: Demolish, or press on?

2024-06-18 12:12 Last Updated At:12:42

PITTSBURGH (AP) — Last week in Parkland, Florida, wrecking equipment began demolishing the building at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School where a gunman's rampage in 2018 ended with 17 people dead. As the rumble of destruction echoed, people in the community set to explaining exactly why ripping the building down was so meaningful — and so crucial.

From former student Bryan Lequerique: “It’s something that we all need. It’s time to bring an end to this very hurtful chapter in everyone’s lives." And Eric Garner, a broadcasting and film teacher, said: “For 6½ years we have been looking at this monument to mass murder that has been on campus every day. ... So coming down, that’s the monumental event.”

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FILE - The former Pulse Nightclub —the site of the 2016 mass shooting that killed 49 patrons— sits south of downtown Orlando, Fla., Wednesday, Oct. 18, 2023. The city of Orlando purchased the nightclub property in 2023 for $2 million, and it has since outlined more modest plans for a memorial. (Joe Burbank/Orlando Sentinel via AP, File)

PITTSBURGH (AP) — Last week in Parkland, Florida, wrecking equipment began demolishing the building at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School where a gunman's rampage in 2018 ended with 17 people dead. As the rumble of destruction echoed, people in the community set to explaining exactly why ripping the building down was so meaningful — and so crucial.

FIE - In this April 17, 2019, file photo, a police officer walks to the front doors of Columbine High School in Littleton, Colo., where two students killed 12 classmates and a teacher in 1999. When violence comes to a public place a delicate question lingers afterward: What should be done with the buildings where blood was shed? (AP Photo/Joe Mahoney, File)

FIE - In this April 17, 2019, file photo, a police officer walks to the front doors of Columbine High School in Littleton, Colo., where two students killed 12 classmates and a teacher in 1999. When violence comes to a public place a delicate question lingers afterward: What should be done with the buildings where blood was shed? (AP Photo/Joe Mahoney, File)

FILE - A group prays at the site of a memorial for the victims of the Buffalo supermarket shooting outside the Tops Friendly Market on Saturday, May 21, 2022, in Buffalo, N.Y. When violence comes to a public place a delicate question lingers afterward: What should be done with the buildings where blood was shed? (AP Photo/Joshua Bessex, File)

FILE - A group prays at the site of a memorial for the victims of the Buffalo supermarket shooting outside the Tops Friendly Market on Saturday, May 21, 2022, in Buffalo, N.Y. When violence comes to a public place a delicate question lingers afterward: What should be done with the buildings where blood was shed? (AP Photo/Joshua Bessex, File)

Former special education teacher at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, Joanne Wallace, right, hugs another onlooker as they watch crews demolish a building at the school, Friday, June 14, 2024, where 17 people died in a 2018 mass shooting in Parkland, Fla. Officials plan to complete the weekslong project before the school's 3,300 students return in August from summer vacation. (AP Photo/Wilfredo Lee)

Former special education teacher at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, Joanne Wallace, right, hugs another onlooker as they watch crews demolish a building at the school, Friday, June 14, 2024, where 17 people died in a 2018 mass shooting in Parkland, Fla. Officials plan to complete the weekslong project before the school's 3,300 students return in August from summer vacation. (AP Photo/Wilfredo Lee)

Crews start the demolition of the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School building, Friday, June 14, 2024, where 17 people died in the 2018 mass shooting in Parkland, Fla. Officials plan to complete the weekslong project before the school's 3,300 students return in August from summer vacation. (AP Photo/Wilfredo Lee)

Crews start the demolition of the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School building, Friday, June 14, 2024, where 17 people died in the 2018 mass shooting in Parkland, Fla. Officials plan to complete the weekslong project before the school's 3,300 students return in August from summer vacation. (AP Photo/Wilfredo Lee)

FILE - Workers begin demolition Wednesday, Jan. 17, 2023, at the Tree of Life building in Pittsburgh, the site of the deadliest antisemitic attack in U.S. history, as part of the effort to reimagine the building to honor the 11 people who were killed there in 2018. When violence comes to a public place, as it does all too often in our era, a delicate question lingers afterward: What should be done with the buildings where blood was shed? (AP Photo/Gene J. Puskar, File)

FILE - Workers begin demolition Wednesday, Jan. 17, 2023, at the Tree of Life building in Pittsburgh, the site of the deadliest antisemitic attack in U.S. history, as part of the effort to reimagine the building to honor the 11 people who were killed there in 2018. When violence comes to a public place, as it does all too often in our era, a delicate question lingers afterward: What should be done with the buildings where blood was shed? (AP Photo/Gene J. Puskar, File)

FILE - Members of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity lead a crowd of people in prayer outside the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church after a memorial for the nine people who were shot and killed during Bible study in Charleston, S.C., Friday, June 19, 2015. When violence comes to a public place, as it does all too often in our era, a delicate question lingers afterward: What should be done with the buildings where blood was shed? (AP Photo/Stephen B. Morton, File)

FILE - Members of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity lead a crowd of people in prayer outside the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church after a memorial for the nine people who were shot and killed during Bible study in Charleston, S.C., Friday, June 19, 2015. When violence comes to a public place, as it does all too often in our era, a delicate question lingers afterward: What should be done with the buildings where blood was shed? (AP Photo/Stephen B. Morton, File)

Parkland. Uvalde. Columbine. Sandy Hook. A supermarket in Buffalo. A church in South Carolina. A synagogue in Pittsburgh. A nightclub in Orlando, Florida. When violence comes to a public place, as it does all too often in our era, a delicate question lingers in the quiet afterward: What should be done with the buildings where blood was shed, where lives were upended, where loved ones were lost forever?

Which is the appropriate choice — the defiance of keeping them standing, or the deep comfort that can come with wiping them off the map? Is it best to keep pain right in front of us, or at a distance?

This question has been answered differently over the years.

The most obvious example in recent history is the decision to preserve the concentration camps run by Nazi Germany during World War II where millions of Jews and others died — an approach consistent with the post-Holocaust mantras of “never forget" and “never again." But that was an event of global significance, with meaning for both the descendants of survivors and the public at large.

For individual American communities, approaches have varied. Parkland and others chose demolition. In Pittsburgh, the Tree of Life synagogue, site of a 2018 shooting, was torn down to make way for a new sanctuary and memorial.

But the Tops Friendly Markets in Buffalo, New York, and the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, South Carolina, where racist mass shootings happened, both reopened. And Columbine High School still stands, though its library, where so much bloodshed occurred, was replaced after much impassioned debate. “Finding a balance between its function as a high school and the need for memorialization has been a long process,” former student Riley Burkhart wrote earlier this year in an essay.

What goes into these decisions? Not only emotion and heartbreak. Sometimes it's simply a question of resources; not all school districts can afford to demolish and rebuild. Sometimes it's about not wanting to give those who might support the shooter a place to focus their attention.

“Denying such opportunities for those who celebrate the persecution and deaths of those different from themselves is a perfectly sound reason to tear down buildings where mass killings occurred,” Daniel Fountain, a professor of history at Meredith College in North Carolina, said in a email.

Perhaps the most significant driving force, though, is the increasing discussion in recent years about the role of mental health.

"There are changing norms about things like trauma and closure that are at play that today encourage the notion of demolishing these spaces," said Timothy Recuber, a sociologist at Smith College in Massachusetts and author of “Consuming Catastrophe: Mass Culture in America’s Decade of Disaster.”

For many years, he said, “the prevailing idea of how to get past a tragedy was to put your head down and push past it. Today, people are more likely to believe that having to return to the scene of the crime, so to speak, is liable to re-inflict harm.”

In Pittsburgh's Squirrel Hill neighborhood, a fence masks the site where the Tree of Life synagogue stood until it was razed earlier this year, more than five years after a gunman killed 11 people in the deadliest antisemitic attack in U.S. history.

David Michael Slater grew up across the street from the synagogue. He understands the ambivalence that can come with choosing whether to knock down.

“It’s easy to see why decision-makers might have chosen one path or the other. And to me, it seems presumptuous for anyone not part of, or directly affected by, the choice to quibble with it,” said Slater, who retired this month after 30 years of teaching middle and high school English. “That said, the decision to demolish such sites, when seen in the context of our escalating culture of erasure, should raise concern."

From World War II to 9/11, the politics of American memory are powerful — and nowhere more intricate than in the case of mass shootings. The loss of loved ones, societal disagreements over gun laws and differing approaches to protecting children create a landscape where the smallest of issues can give rise to dozens of passionate and angry opinions.

To some, keeping a building standing is the ultimate defiance: You are not bowing to horror nor capitulating to those who caused it. You are choosing to continue in the face of unimaginable circumstances — a robust thread in the American narrative.

To others, the possibility of being retraumatized is central. Why, the thinking goes, should a building where people met violent ends continue to be a looming — literally — force in the lives of those who must go on?

It stands to reason, then, that a key factor in deciding the fates of such buildings coalesces around one question: Who is the audience?

“It’s not a simple choice of should we knock it down or renovate or let it be," said Jennifer Talarico, a psychology professor at Lafayette College in Pennsylvania who studies how people form personal memories of public events.

“If we’re interested in the memories of the people who directly experienced the event, that physical space will serve as a specific and powerful reminder. But if we’re talking about remembering or commemorating an event for other people, those who did not experience it, that’s a slightly different calculus," Talarico said. “Remembering and forgetting are both powerful forces."

Ultimately, of course, there is a middle ground: eliminating the building itself but erecting a lasting memorial to those who were lost, as Uvalde and other communities have chosen. In that way, the virtues of mental health and memory can both be honored. Life can go on — not obliviously, but not impeded by a daily, visceral reminder of the heartbreak that once visited.

That approach sits well with Slater, who has contemplated such tragedies both from the standpoint of his hometown synagogue and the classrooms where he spent decades teaching and keeping kids safe.

“Like every problem in life that matters, simple answers are hard to come by,” Slater said. “If what replaces the Tree of Life, or Parkland, or the next defiled place of worship or learning or commerce, can be made to serve both as proof of our indomitable spirit and as memorialized evidence of what we strive to overcome, perhaps we can have the best of both worst worlds.”

Ted Anthony, director of new storytelling and newsroom innovation at The Associated Press, has been writing about American culture for 35 years and covered the Columbine High School shootings. Follow him at https://x.com/anthonyted

FILE - The former Pulse Nightclub —the site of the 2016 mass shooting that killed 49 patrons— sits south of downtown Orlando, Fla., Wednesday, Oct. 18, 2023. The city of Orlando purchased the nightclub property in 2023 for $2 million, and it has since outlined more modest plans for a memorial. (Joe Burbank/Orlando Sentinel via AP, File)

FILE - The former Pulse Nightclub —the site of the 2016 mass shooting that killed 49 patrons— sits south of downtown Orlando, Fla., Wednesday, Oct. 18, 2023. The city of Orlando purchased the nightclub property in 2023 for $2 million, and it has since outlined more modest plans for a memorial. (Joe Burbank/Orlando Sentinel via AP, File)

FIE - In this April 17, 2019, file photo, a police officer walks to the front doors of Columbine High School in Littleton, Colo., where two students killed 12 classmates and a teacher in 1999. When violence comes to a public place a delicate question lingers afterward: What should be done with the buildings where blood was shed? (AP Photo/Joe Mahoney, File)

FIE - In this April 17, 2019, file photo, a police officer walks to the front doors of Columbine High School in Littleton, Colo., where two students killed 12 classmates and a teacher in 1999. When violence comes to a public place a delicate question lingers afterward: What should be done with the buildings where blood was shed? (AP Photo/Joe Mahoney, File)

FILE - A group prays at the site of a memorial for the victims of the Buffalo supermarket shooting outside the Tops Friendly Market on Saturday, May 21, 2022, in Buffalo, N.Y. When violence comes to a public place a delicate question lingers afterward: What should be done with the buildings where blood was shed? (AP Photo/Joshua Bessex, File)

FILE - A group prays at the site of a memorial for the victims of the Buffalo supermarket shooting outside the Tops Friendly Market on Saturday, May 21, 2022, in Buffalo, N.Y. When violence comes to a public place a delicate question lingers afterward: What should be done with the buildings where blood was shed? (AP Photo/Joshua Bessex, File)

Former special education teacher at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, Joanne Wallace, right, hugs another onlooker as they watch crews demolish a building at the school, Friday, June 14, 2024, where 17 people died in a 2018 mass shooting in Parkland, Fla. Officials plan to complete the weekslong project before the school's 3,300 students return in August from summer vacation. (AP Photo/Wilfredo Lee)

Former special education teacher at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, Joanne Wallace, right, hugs another onlooker as they watch crews demolish a building at the school, Friday, June 14, 2024, where 17 people died in a 2018 mass shooting in Parkland, Fla. Officials plan to complete the weekslong project before the school's 3,300 students return in August from summer vacation. (AP Photo/Wilfredo Lee)

Crews start the demolition of the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School building, Friday, June 14, 2024, where 17 people died in the 2018 mass shooting in Parkland, Fla. Officials plan to complete the weekslong project before the school's 3,300 students return in August from summer vacation. (AP Photo/Wilfredo Lee)

Crews start the demolition of the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School building, Friday, June 14, 2024, where 17 people died in the 2018 mass shooting in Parkland, Fla. Officials plan to complete the weekslong project before the school's 3,300 students return in August from summer vacation. (AP Photo/Wilfredo Lee)

FILE - Workers begin demolition Wednesday, Jan. 17, 2023, at the Tree of Life building in Pittsburgh, the site of the deadliest antisemitic attack in U.S. history, as part of the effort to reimagine the building to honor the 11 people who were killed there in 2018. When violence comes to a public place, as it does all too often in our era, a delicate question lingers afterward: What should be done with the buildings where blood was shed? (AP Photo/Gene J. Puskar, File)

FILE - Workers begin demolition Wednesday, Jan. 17, 2023, at the Tree of Life building in Pittsburgh, the site of the deadliest antisemitic attack in U.S. history, as part of the effort to reimagine the building to honor the 11 people who were killed there in 2018. When violence comes to a public place, as it does all too often in our era, a delicate question lingers afterward: What should be done with the buildings where blood was shed? (AP Photo/Gene J. Puskar, File)

FILE - Members of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity lead a crowd of people in prayer outside the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church after a memorial for the nine people who were shot and killed during Bible study in Charleston, S.C., Friday, June 19, 2015. When violence comes to a public place, as it does all too often in our era, a delicate question lingers afterward: What should be done with the buildings where blood was shed? (AP Photo/Stephen B. Morton, File)

FILE - Members of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity lead a crowd of people in prayer outside the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church after a memorial for the nine people who were shot and killed during Bible study in Charleston, S.C., Friday, June 19, 2015. When violence comes to a public place, as it does all too often in our era, a delicate question lingers afterward: What should be done with the buildings where blood was shed? (AP Photo/Stephen B. Morton, File)

President Joe Biden dropped out of the 2024 race for the White House on Sunday, ending his bid for reelection following a disastrous debate with Donald Trump that raised doubts about his fitness for office just four months before the election.

Meanwhile, Vice President Kamala Harris is being thrust into the most scrutinizing of spotlights, suddenly the leading candidate to succeed Biden as the presumptive Democratic presidential nominee and her party’s main hope of defeating Trump.

Follow the AP’s Election-2024 coverage at: https://apnews.com/hub/election-2024.

Here's the Latest:

As President Joe Biden was deciding to withdraw from the race Sunday morning, Vice President Kamala Harris had multiple phone conversations with him, according to a person familiar who spoke only on background to more freely divulge details.

Harris was at the vice president’s residence at the Naval Observatory in Washington. She was surrounded by family and staff and wore a hooded Howard University sweatshirt, workout sweats and sneakers, the person said.

She spent 10-plus hours Sunday placing calls to more than 100 party leaders, members of Congress, governors, labor leaders, and leaders of advocacy and civil rights organizations. Harris told all that she was grateful Biden endorsed her upon leaving the race but she planned to earn the Democratic presidential nomination in her own right.

The vice president also called her pastor, Amos Brown III, who, along with his wife, prayed over her.

Harris arranged lunch and dinner for assembled aides. They ate afternoon sandwiches and salad and pizza in the evening. Harris’ pizza had anchovies, which the person said is her go-to topping.

— Will Weissert

“The vice president is smart and strong, which will make her a good president,” Beshear said during a Monday morning appearance on MSNBC. “But she’s also kind and has empathy, which can make her a great president.”

Beshear praised Harris’ resume as a former prosecutor and says she’s ready to assume the presidency. He says he’s willing to do everything he can to support her.

Asked if he’s open to potentially joining the ticket, Beshear said he loves his job as governor. “The only way I would consider something other than this current job is if I believed I could further help my people and to help this country,” he said.

Beshear defeated Trump-endorsed Republicans to win the governorship in 2019 and to win reelection last year in his Republican-leaning state.

Speaking on Monday to CBS, the West Virginia Democrat-turned-independent said “I don’t need that in my life.”

Manchin had been the latest senator to call for Biden to exit the 2024 race before Sunday’s announcement by Biden that he would do just that.

Manchin had already mulled a late-breaking 2024 White House bid of his own but said in February after a listening tour that he didn’t want to be a “spoiler.” As a Democrat, he had often bucked his own party’s leadership.

Luxembourg Foreign Minister Xavier Bettel praised President Joe Biden for his announcement that he’s ending his bid for reelection.

“It takes courage for a politician to say ‘I’m a bit old and I’m not capable of doing it anymore,’” Bettel said, describing it as a “courageous and difficult decision” by Biden.

Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand, a Democrat from New York, endorsed Harris and called her “an unwavering champion for families, workers and justice.”

Gillibrand, who ran against Harris in the 2020 Democratic presidential primary, said in a statement Monday that the vice president is “incredibly well-qualified, with experience as a prosecutor, as a lawmaker, and as a leader on the world stage.”

“Now is the time to unite,” the senator said. “VP Harris has the grit and toughness to beat Donald Trump and I’m eager to join her in this fight.”

ActBlue, the Democratic fundraising platform, announced that it had collected $46.7 million as of 9 p.m. ET from small-dollar donations for Vice President Harris’ campaign.

The Biden campaign and affiliated groups previously had about $96 million in cash on hand. The Republican National Convention, by contrast, reported a campaign fund of $102 million in June.

Donald Trump’s campaign has spent the last year and a half viciously attacking Joe Biden, ridiculing his policies, mocking his fumbles and relishing a rematch they felt they were winning.

But it has also spent weeks preparing for the possibility that he might exit the race, readying a bevy of attacks against Vice President Kamala Harris that it unleashed as soon as Biden made his stunning announcement Sunday that he would step aside.

Biden soon after endorsed Harris, who was quickly winning support from Democrats to be the party’s nominee.

The shakeup less than four months before Election Day lays out new challenges for Trump’s team, which had until recently been focused on contrasting the former president’s vigor and mental acuity with Biden’s.

Read more about the Trump campaign's pivot toward Harris.

The Democratic delegations of multiple states have decided to back Vice President Kamala Harris for the party nomination at next month’s national convention.

“Tonight, all 168 delegates of the North Carolina Democratic Party made history,” North Carolina party chair Anderson Clayton said in a post on the social platform X.

In South Carolina, party chair Christale Spain said in an email statement Sunday night that that state’s delegation met virtually. The vice president “has been fully vetted, and she has earned our unwavering support,” Spain said.

Harris received her first delegates earlier in the day from Tennessee, when the state party posted on X that its delegation voted during a meeting to back her.

Another state where the switch was made was New Hampshire, where the 25 pledged delegates voted unanimously Sunday night to endorse Harris.

The nation’s six Black state attorneys general threw their support behind Vice President Harris. In a statement on X, they laid out her qualifications and said she “has staunchly defended our right to choose and preserved our most sacred right to vote. There is no one more qualified to lead and continue to uphold the values of our great nation.”

The statement listed Letitia James, New York; Kwame Raoul, Illinois; Anthony Brown, Maryland; Andrea Campbell, Massachusetts; Keith Ellison, Minnesota; and Aaron Ford, Nevada.

Shortly after President Joe Biden announced that he would drop his reelection campaign, Democratic National Committee Chair Jaime Harrison had a message: There would be no automatic coronation for his replacement.

“In the coming days, the party will undertake a transparent and orderly process to move forward,” Harrison said in a statement. “This process will be governed by established rules and procedures of the party. Our delegates are prepared to take seriously their responsibility in swiftly delivering a candidate to the American people.“

The comment reflected the reality that while Vice President Kamala Harris is emerging as the prohibitive favorite to become the nominee — backed already by Biden and many Democrats — it’s not so simple. And for now, the party isn’t offering many details on what happens next.

Read more about the process of replacing Biden on the Democratic ticket.

FILE - Sen. Kamala Harris, D-Calif., speaks before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence on Capitol Hill, June 13, 2017, in Washington. She's already broken barriers, and now Vice President Harris could soon become the first Black woman to head a major party's presidential ticket after President Joe Biden's ended his reelection bid. The 59-year-old Harris was endorsed by Biden on Sunday, July 21, after he stepped aside amid widespread concerns about the viability of his candidacy. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite, File)

FILE - Sen. Kamala Harris, D-Calif., speaks before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence on Capitol Hill, June 13, 2017, in Washington. She's already broken barriers, and now Vice President Harris could soon become the first Black woman to head a major party's presidential ticket after President Joe Biden's ended his reelection bid. The 59-year-old Harris was endorsed by Biden on Sunday, July 21, after he stepped aside amid widespread concerns about the viability of his candidacy. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite, File)

Supporters of Republican presidential candidate former President Donald Trump and Republican vice presidential candidate Sen. JD Vance, R-Ohio, carry a sign before a campaign event, Saturday, July 20, 2024, at Van Andel Arena in Grand Rapids, Mich. (AP Photo/Carlos Osorio)

Supporters of Republican presidential candidate former President Donald Trump and Republican vice presidential candidate Sen. JD Vance, R-Ohio, carry a sign before a campaign event, Saturday, July 20, 2024, at Van Andel Arena in Grand Rapids, Mich. (AP Photo/Carlos Osorio)

Supporters of Republican presidential candidate former President Donald Trump and Republican vice presidential candidate Sen. JD Vance, R-Ohio, hold signs in the audience at a campaign event, Saturday, July 20, 2024, at Van Andel Arena in Grand Rapids, Mich. (AP Photo/Carlos Osorio)

Supporters of Republican presidential candidate former President Donald Trump and Republican vice presidential candidate Sen. JD Vance, R-Ohio, hold signs in the audience at a campaign event, Saturday, July 20, 2024, at Van Andel Arena in Grand Rapids, Mich. (AP Photo/Carlos Osorio)

Republican vice presidential candidate Sen. JD Vance, R-Ohio, arrives to speak before Republican presidential candidate former President Donald Trump at a campaign rally, Saturday, July 20, 2024, in Grand Rapids, Mich. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)

Republican vice presidential candidate Sen. JD Vance, R-Ohio, arrives to speak before Republican presidential candidate former President Donald Trump at a campaign rally, Saturday, July 20, 2024, in Grand Rapids, Mich. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)

Republican presidential candidate former President Donald Trump speaks at a campaign rally, Saturday, July 20, 2024, in Grand Rapids, Mich. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)

Republican presidential candidate former President Donald Trump speaks at a campaign rally, Saturday, July 20, 2024, in Grand Rapids, Mich. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)

Republican presidential candidate former President Donald Trump arrives at a campaign rally, Saturday, July 20, 2024, in Grand Rapids, Mich. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)

Republican presidential candidate former President Donald Trump arrives at a campaign rally, Saturday, July 20, 2024, in Grand Rapids, Mich. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)

Mattia Crovino, of Bologna, Italy, watches a news broadcast announcing that President Joe Biden has dropped out of the 2024 race for the White House, Sunday, July 21, 2024,. (AP Photo/David Goldman)

Mattia Crovino, of Bologna, Italy, watches a news broadcast announcing that President Joe Biden has dropped out of the 2024 race for the White House, Sunday, July 21, 2024,. (AP Photo/David Goldman)

Anna Filipic, of Washington, holds her daughter Louisa Monje, 2, outside the White House in Washington, Sunday, July 21, 2024, as they show support for President Joe Biden. Biden dropped out of the 2024 race for the White House on Sunday, ending his bid for reelection following a disastrous debate with Donald Trump that raised doubts about his fitness for office just four months before the election. (AP Photo/Susan Walsh)

Anna Filipic, of Washington, holds her daughter Louisa Monje, 2, outside the White House in Washington, Sunday, July 21, 2024, as they show support for President Joe Biden. Biden dropped out of the 2024 race for the White House on Sunday, ending his bid for reelection following a disastrous debate with Donald Trump that raised doubts about his fitness for office just four months before the election. (AP Photo/Susan Walsh)

Republican presidential candidate former President Donald Trump speaks at a campaign rally, Saturday, July 20, 2024, in Grand Rapids, Mich. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)

Republican presidential candidate former President Donald Trump speaks at a campaign rally, Saturday, July 20, 2024, in Grand Rapids, Mich. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)

Republican presidential candidate former President Donald Trump arrives at a campaign rally, Saturday, July 20, 2024, in Grand Rapids, Mich. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)

Republican presidential candidate former President Donald Trump arrives at a campaign rally, Saturday, July 20, 2024, in Grand Rapids, Mich. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)

George Ledbetter watches news of President Joe Biden dropping out of the 2024 race for the White House at They Say Restaurant in Harper Woods, Mich., Sunday, July 21, 2024. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

George Ledbetter watches news of President Joe Biden dropping out of the 2024 race for the White House at They Say Restaurant in Harper Woods, Mich., Sunday, July 21, 2024. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

A news crawl appears on the side of the Fox News building in New York, Sunday, July 21, 2024, in the wake of President Joe Biden dropping out of the 2024 race for the White House. (AP Photo/Craig Ruttle)

A news crawl appears on the side of the Fox News building in New York, Sunday, July 21, 2024, in the wake of President Joe Biden dropping out of the 2024 race for the White House. (AP Photo/Craig Ruttle)

Republican presidential candidate former President Donald Trump speaks at a campaign rally, Saturday, July 20, 2024, in Grand Rapids, Mich. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)

Republican presidential candidate former President Donald Trump speaks at a campaign rally, Saturday, July 20, 2024, in Grand Rapids, Mich. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)

A view of the White House is seen in Washington, Sunday, July 21, 2024. President Joe Biden dropped out of the 2024 race for the White House on Sunday, ending his bid for reelection following a disastrous debate with Donald Trump that raised doubts about his fitness for office just four months before the election. (AP Photo/Susan Walsh)

A view of the White House is seen in Washington, Sunday, July 21, 2024. President Joe Biden dropped out of the 2024 race for the White House on Sunday, ending his bid for reelection following a disastrous debate with Donald Trump that raised doubts about his fitness for office just four months before the election. (AP Photo/Susan Walsh)

FILE - Vice President Kamala Harris embraces President Joe Biden after a speech on healthcare in Raleigh, N.C., March. 26, 2024. President Joe Biden dropped out of the 2024 race for the White House on Sunday, July 21, ending his bid for reelection following a disastrous debate with Donald Trump that raised doubts about his fitness for office just four months before the election. (AP Photo/Matt Kelley, File)

FILE - Vice President Kamala Harris embraces President Joe Biden after a speech on healthcare in Raleigh, N.C., March. 26, 2024. President Joe Biden dropped out of the 2024 race for the White House on Sunday, July 21, ending his bid for reelection following a disastrous debate with Donald Trump that raised doubts about his fitness for office just four months before the election. (AP Photo/Matt Kelley, File)

A handmade sign for Vice President Kamala Harris appears on a lawn, Sunday, July 21, 2024, in Washington. She’s already broken barriers, and now Harris could soon become the first Black woman to head a major party's presidential ticket after President Joe Biden’s ended his reelection bid. The 59-year-old Harris was endorsed by Biden on Sunday, after he stepped aside amid widespread concerns about the viability of his candidacy. (AP Photo/Jacquelyn Martin)

A handmade sign for Vice President Kamala Harris appears on a lawn, Sunday, July 21, 2024, in Washington. She’s already broken barriers, and now Harris could soon become the first Black woman to head a major party's presidential ticket after President Joe Biden’s ended his reelection bid. The 59-year-old Harris was endorsed by Biden on Sunday, after he stepped aside amid widespread concerns about the viability of his candidacy. (AP Photo/Jacquelyn Martin)

Balloons for President Joe Biden are brought to the White House in Washington, Sunday, July 21, 2024. Biden dropped out of the 2024 race for the White House on Sunday, ending his bid for reelection following a disastrous debate with Donald Trump that raised doubts about his fitness for office just four months before the election. (AP Photo/Susan Walsh)

Balloons for President Joe Biden are brought to the White House in Washington, Sunday, July 21, 2024. Biden dropped out of the 2024 race for the White House on Sunday, ending his bid for reelection following a disastrous debate with Donald Trump that raised doubts about his fitness for office just four months before the election. (AP Photo/Susan Walsh)

Hugh Kieve, 10, of Washington, holds a sign outside the White House in Washington, Sunday, July 21, 2024, as he and his family come out to show support for President Joe Biden. Biden dropped out of the 2024 race for the White House on Sunday, ending his bid for reelection following a disastrous debate with Donald Trump that raised doubts about his fitness for office just four months before the election. (AP Photo/Susan Walsh)

Hugh Kieve, 10, of Washington, holds a sign outside the White House in Washington, Sunday, July 21, 2024, as he and his family come out to show support for President Joe Biden. Biden dropped out of the 2024 race for the White House on Sunday, ending his bid for reelection following a disastrous debate with Donald Trump that raised doubts about his fitness for office just four months before the election. (AP Photo/Susan Walsh)

FILE - President Joe Biden arrives for the NATO summit in Washington, July 10, 2024. Biden dropped out of the 2024 race for the White House on Sunday, July 21, ending his bid for reelection following a disastrous debate with Donald Trump that raised doubts about his fitness for office just four months before the election. (AP Photo/Jacquelyn Martin, File)

FILE - President Joe Biden arrives for the NATO summit in Washington, July 10, 2024. Biden dropped out of the 2024 race for the White House on Sunday, July 21, ending his bid for reelection following a disastrous debate with Donald Trump that raised doubts about his fitness for office just four months before the election. (AP Photo/Jacquelyn Martin, File)

FILE - Vice President Kamala Harris speaks at an event May 1, 2024, in Jacksonville, Fla. She’s already broken barriers, and now Harris could soon become the first Black woman to head a major party's presidential ticket after President Joe Biden’s ended his reelection bid. The 59-year-old Harris was endorsed by Biden on Sunday, July 21, after he stepped aside amid widespread concerns about the viability of his candidacy. (AP Photo/John Raoux, File)

FILE - Vice President Kamala Harris speaks at an event May 1, 2024, in Jacksonville, Fla. She’s already broken barriers, and now Harris could soon become the first Black woman to head a major party's presidential ticket after President Joe Biden’s ended his reelection bid. The 59-year-old Harris was endorsed by Biden on Sunday, July 21, after he stepped aside amid widespread concerns about the viability of his candidacy. (AP Photo/John Raoux, File)

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